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About the Author:

Dimitar Kostadinov applied for a 6-year Master’s program in Bulgarian and European Law at the University of Ruse, and I was enrolled in 2002 following high school. In 2008, he held a job as a data researcher for the American company Law Seminars International. In 2010, he passed the TOEFL IBT exam and then was admitted Law and Politics of International Security to Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands, graduating in August of 2012.

Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Consequence-based approach Part II

The consequence-based duo tests

The focus of this contribution is placed on two tests which employ the consequence-based approach that, in turn, aims to categorize cyber attacks as a use/threat […]


Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Consequence-based approach Part I

Introductory presentation

While still reviewing the instrument-based theory, there was a slight allusion at some point that oftentimes from practical reasons the gravity of acts occurring in the international medium […]


Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Consequence-based approach, Part III

1. Criticism and Possible Flaws of Consequence-Based Approach and Seven-Factor Test

There are people from the field of law, and not only from that field, who do not think that […]


Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Target-based approach

I. Essence

The target-based is the second approach that theorists and practitioners use to tuck cyber warfare into the unfitting law framework that jus ad bellum represents, at least concerning […]


Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Instrument-based approach


The coming of new technologies is challenging to many fields of human activity. In particular, there is a discrepancy between IT and the laws that regulate armed conflicts. […]


Gauss: Between technology and politics


The purpose of this work is to present the reader research of the Gauss malware platform as one of the ultimate nation-state cyber exploitation toolkit. Like every sensible human […]


GhostNet – Part II

Behind the GhostNet notion stands an entire international worldwide network of infected computers belonging to places having high political, economic, media, or emblematic importance. One result among many in […]


GhostNet – Part I


Several years after the revelation of GhostNet, a massive case of cyber exploitation directed mostly against the Tibetan community, in terms of originality, this contribution appears as an interesting […]


The Cyber Exploitation Life Cycle


For the purposes of this article, the term “cyber exploitation” will represent all the subversive activities that include interstate “breaking and entering” somebody else’s computer and network. For further […]


Cyber Exploitation


Over the past couple of years, cyber exploitation has established a reputation of something more than mere nuisance. The repercussions of these acts are often severe; ranging from a […]


The Attribution Problem in Cyber Attacks


This article examines the problem of attribution of cyber attack from all sides. The attribution of activities carried out through the Internet is extremely difficult and, in many […]


Invoking Article 51 (self-defense) of the UN Charter in Response to Cyber Attacks – II

Cyber attacks through the perspective of the armed attack notion

A cyber attack cannot rise to the level of an armed attack as prescribed in Article 51 “because it lacks […]


Invoking Article 51 (self-defense) of the UN Charter in Response to Cyber Attacks – I


Among the series of problems with regard to the legal regulation of cyber attacks is how the self-defense doctrine applies to them. In itself, the self-defense notion was always […]


Using Technology To Enhance Public Safety

This article is focused on the sport football (or soccer in the USA). Nevertheless, the same technology and security measures can be applied in virtually any other major sports […]


The cyber attacks on Saudi Aramco, RasGas, and U.S. banks in the context of international law


When it was created, the Internet was launched as a classified military experiment, but nowadays it is a widely used tool that has a multitude of purposes. Recent cyber […]


Cyberterrorism Defined (as distinct from “Cybercrime”)


Technology is developing at an extremely vigorous pace over the last couple of decades. There are many unknown terms that come along with this rapid change. Often, the common […]