877.791.9571 |

About the Author:

Dimitar Kostadinov applied for a 6-year Master’s program in Bulgarian and European Law at the University of Ruse, and I was enrolled in 2002 following high school. In 2008, he held a job as a data researcher for the American company Law Seminars International. In 2010, he passed the TOEFL IBT exam and then was admitted Law and Politics of International Security to Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands, graduating in August of 2012.
cyber-attack07112013

Jus in Cyber Bello: How the Law of Armed Conflict Regulates Cyber Attacks Part II

Prohibition of Perfidy

Article 37 of AP I – Prohibition of perfidy
1. It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resorting to perfidy. Acts inviting the confidence […]

cyber-attack07112013

Jus in Cyber Bello: How the Law of Armed Conflict Regulates Cyber Attacks Part I

What is Jus in Bello and Does it Regulate Cyber Attacks?

Jus in bello is a Latin term that means “law in waging war.” From a scholar’s point of view, […]

CarHack03132014

The Future is Now: Car Hacking

Preface: “Modern Cars”

As Dr. Charlie Miller & Chris Valasek stated in their research paper Adventures in Automotive Networks and Control Units, “Automobiles are no longer just mechanical devices. Today’s […]

malvertising02132014

Malvertising: A Growing Threat at the Start of 2014

Word Meaning

The term “malvertising” is coined through the combination of two words – “malware” (i.e., “malicious software”) and “advertising.”
Diagram 1

As an activity taking place online, malvertising is defined as […]

LicPlates02072014

Privacy Implications of Automatic License Plate Recognition Technology

ALPR – Technical Specifications

The majority of ALPR devices are mounted on bridges, road signs, and poles near traffic lights or outside public buildings and even patrol vehicles. It seems […]

ransomWare02062014

RansomWar(e)

There is a notable upsurge in the number of ransomware attacks in the past couple of months, and undoubtedly the emergence of the CryptoLocker ransomware is among the most […]

CyberExtortion01142014

Cyber Extortion

Data Held Hostage

In the digital age, data has incredible value. Not only for business purposes, but also for criminal intent. It draws the interest of cyber extortionists, as legitimate […]

DDoS-12122013

Legality of DDoS: Criminal Deed vs. Act of Civil Disobedience

Introduction

This article was inspired by two factors: 1) the petition filed by Anonymous on the White House’s We the People website in the beginning of 2013, demanding decriminalization and […]

ShadowNetwork12092013

Shadow Network

Part I
I. Introduction

Similarly to the real real-life situation where a GhostNet report is followed by the one on the Shadow network, these articles come as a logical continuation of […]

DetectMitigat12042013

LAYER 7 DDOS ATTACKS: DETECTION & MITIGATION

Introduction: Initial Detection/Mitigation Challenges

Before we go to the main topic of this article, let us take heed of two factors that exacerbate the buildup of effective defensive powers against […]

OSI7LayerModel-10242013

Layer Seven DDoS Attacks

What is Layer 7?

The process of sending and receiving data from one host to another, data encapsulation, is possible due to the existence of a seven layer protocol suite […]

Estonia_flag_map10012013

Estonia: To Blackout an Entire Country – Part 2

IV. Attack Targets & Impact
The main targets appear to be information distribution channels owned either by the Estonian government, or the private and business sector web portals. They specifically […]

Estonia_flag_map10012013

Estonia: To Black Out an Entire Country – part one

Introduction

The cyber-attacks that befell Estonia in 2007 is a case much discussed and underrated at the same time. Many tend to ignore the eloquent fact that this incident represents […]

USCyberPolicy08282013

U.S. Cyber Policy – Course and Legal Aspects

Image courtesy of Gualberto107 / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Introduction

Cyber policy is an important issue that many would qualify as pending. Even leading nations struggle to get a good grip on the political […]

cyberattack_07232013

Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Consequence-based approachPart III

I. Criticism and possible flaws of consequence-based approach and seven-factor test

There are people from the field of law, and not only, who do not think that everything with fitting […]

cyberattack_07232013

Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Consequence-based approach Part II

The consequence-based duo tests

The focus of this contribution is placed on two tests which employ the consequence-based approach that, in turn, aims to categorize cyber attacks as a use/threat […]

cyberattack_07232013

Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Consequence-based approach Part I

Introductory presentation

While still reviewing the instrument-based theory, there was a slight allusion at some point that oftentimes from practical reasons the gravity of acts occurring in the international medium […]

cyberattack_07232013

Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Consequence-based approach, Part III

1. Criticism and Possible Flaws of Consequence-Based Approach and Seven-Factor Test

There are people from the field of law, and not only from that field, who do not think that […]

cyber-attack07112013

Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Target-based approach

I. Essence

The target-based is the second approach that theorists and practitioners use to tuck cyber warfare into the unfitting law framework that jus ad bellum represents, at least concerning […]

cyber-attack07112013

Fitting cyber attacks to jus ad bellum — Instrument-based approach

Introduction

The coming of new technologies is challenging to many fields of human activity. In particular, there is a discrepancy between IT and the laws that regulate armed conflicts. […]