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About the Author:

Dimitar Kostadinov applied for a 6-year Master’s program in Bulgarian and European Law at the University of Ruse, and I was enrolled in 2002 following high school. In 2008, he held a job as a data researcher for the American company Law Seminars International. In 2010, he passed the TOEFL IBT exam and then was admitted Law and Politics of International Security to Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands, graduating in August of 2012.

Online Defamation Cases – Part II


We all know how important it is nowadays to have a clean online record, almost as important as having no previous criminal offences. That is why often page 1 […]


Online Defamation Cases – Part I


We all know how important it is nowadays to have a clean online record, almost as important as having no previous criminal offences. That is why often page 1 […]


What is Online Defamation /a.k.a. Cyber Libel/ and How it Pertains to some Contemporary Legal Systems

Preface: Balancing Freedom of Expression and Reputation Protection

The right to freedom of expression – is there a better way to begin this topic? What could be perceived as a […]


The Essentials of an Acceptable Use Policy

1. What is an Acceptable Use Policy?


An Acceptable Use Policy (henceforward mentioned as “AUP”) is agreement between two or more parties to a computer network community, expressing in writing […]


Cyber Insurance


Cyber insurance coverage has been available on the market for a decade, but only recently companies have been seeing a significant growth—sales of cyber insurance in 2013 escalated 30 […]


Cyber Threat Analysis

1. Definition & Objective

A threat could be anything that leads to interruption, meddling or destruction of any valuable service or item existing in the firm’s repertoire. Whether of “human” […]


Key Elements of an E-mail Retention Policy

1. What is an E-mail Retention Policy?

Simply put, an e-mail retention policy/ERP is the process of keeping emails for compliance or business reasons. It differs from archiving (although these […]


Key Elements of an Information Security Policy

1. Definition & Intro
Information Security Policy /ISP/ is a set or rules enacted by an organization to ensure that all users or networks of the IT structure within the […]


Behind Cyberbullying – Legislation & Coping Strategies

1. Preface: Cyberbullying and Digital Natives

Dr. Sameer Hinduja and Dr. Justin Patchin at the Cyberbullying Research Center define cyberbullying as “wilful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of […]


H@cking Implantable Medical Devices

Preface: Modern Medical Devices and their Software
Contemporary healthcare relies heavily on medical devices to help patients lead normal and healthy lives. Yet there are security problems ranging from cyber […]


Jus in Cyber Bello: How the Law of Armed Conflict Regulates Cyber Attacks Part II

Prohibition of Perfidy

Article 37 of AP I – Prohibition of perfidy
1. It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resorting to perfidy. Acts inviting the confidence […]


Jus in Cyber Bello: How the Law of Armed Conflict Regulates Cyber Attacks Part I

What is Jus in Bello and Does it Regulate Cyber Attacks?

Jus in bello is a Latin term that means “law in waging war.” From a scholar’s point of view, […]


The Future is Now: Car Hacking

Preface: “Modern Cars”

As Dr. Charlie Miller & Chris Valasek stated in their research paper Adventures in Automotive Networks and Control Units, “Automobiles are no longer just mechanical devices. Today’s […]


Malvertising: A Growing Threat at the Start of 2014

Word Meaning

The term “malvertising” is coined through the combination of two words – “malware” (i.e., “malicious software”) and “advertising.”
Diagram 1

As an activity taking place online, malvertising is defined as […]


Privacy Implications of Automatic License Plate Recognition Technology

ALPR – Technical Specifications

The majority of ALPR devices are mounted on bridges, road signs, and poles near traffic lights or outside public buildings and even patrol vehicles. It seems […]



There is a notable upsurge in the number of ransomware attacks in the past couple of months, and undoubtedly the emergence of the CryptoLocker ransomware is among the most […]


Cyber Extortion

Data Held Hostage

In the digital age, data has incredible value. Not only for business purposes, but also for criminal intent. It draws the interest of cyber extortionists, as legitimate […]


Legality of DDoS: Criminal Deed vs. Act of Civil Disobedience


This article was inspired by two factors: 1) the petition filed by Anonymous on the White House’s We the People website in the beginning of 2013, demanding decriminalization and […]


Shadow Network

Part I
I. Introduction

Similarly to the real real-life situation where a GhostNet report is followed by the one on the Shadow network, these articles come as a logical continuation of […]



Introduction: Initial Detection/Mitigation Challenges

Before we go to the main topic of this article, let us take heed of two factors that exacerbate the buildup of effective defensive powers against […]