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About the Author:

Dejan Lukan is a security researcher for InfoSec Institute and penetration tester from Slovenia. He is very interested in finding new bugs in real world software products with source code analysis, fuzzing and reverse engineering. He also has a great passion for developing his own simple scripts for security related problems and learning about new hacking techniques. He knows a great deal about programming languages, as he can write in couple of dozen of them. His passion is also Antivirus bypassing techniques, malware research and operating systems, mainly Linux, Windows and BSD. He also has his own blog available here: http://www.proteansec.com/.

The ASP.NET Internals

ASP.NET Configuration Options

The most important configurations in the web.config file will be described in this section:


The authentication tag is used at the application level and is used to […]


The Sysenter Instruction Internals


In the previous article we’ve seen that whether we’re using the int 0x2e interrupt or sysenter instruction, the same method in kernel is being used. We also identified that […]


Introduction to Kernel Debugging with Windbg


You’ve probably heard about Windbg before, right? It’s a Windows debugger written by Microsoft that’s used by developers and hackers for debugging the OS. We won’t go into the […]


Presenting the PE Header

Let’s present the whole PE file structure with the picture below (taken from ):

At the beginning there’s a DOS header, which is an MS-DOS compatible executable that always consists […]

The Import Directory

The Import Directory: Part 2


You can take a look at the previous article before reading this one. If you already understand the basics of IAT table, then you can skip the first article, but […]

The Import Directory

The Import Directory: Part 1

We know that when the operating system loads the executable, it will scan through its IAT table to locate the DLLs and functions the executable is using. This is […]

The Export Directory

The Export Directory

Simple Example of Export Directory

Let’s take a look at a simple example to understand how the export directory is used by the executables/libraries. Let’s suppose that we’re dealing with […]

Loading the Windows Kernel Driver

In the previous part of the article, we’ve explained how to compile the Windows kernel driver. Now that we know how to compile the driver, we also have to […]

Compiling the Windows Kernel Driver


In the previous article, I’ve written and described a kernel mode driver, but I haven’t actually done anything with it. There’s something missing in that picture: it’s the loading of […]

Writing a Windows Kernel Driver


If you haven’t read the first two articles yet, here and here, then you probably should, because they are essential to understanding what we’ll be talking about here.

Before we […]

Windows Building Environment for Kernel Driver Development

Details of Driver Development Environment

In the previous article , we saw that upon installing WDK 7.1.0, we got build environments for Windows 7, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows […]

Writing Windows Kernel Mode Driver


In this tutorial, we’re going to use the Windows Driver Mode (WDM) which provides us greater flexibility than other modes while being harder to use. We’ll take a look […]


Windows Booting Process


In the previous tutorial, we’ve seen how one would go about booting the Linux operating system by using GRUB. We presented the basic overview of the booting process in […]


Linux Booting Process


In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the booting process of the Linux operating system. We’ve already described the booting process in this article, especially how the […]


Windows Kernel Debugging Symbols and Commands

In this tutorial, we’ll introduce a few basic tools that we need to have available when doing kernel debugging on Windows. Besides that, we’ll present Windows debuggers that can […]


The Sysenter Instruction and 0x2e Interrupt

In this article, we’ll present a couple of examples where we’ll be using the 0x2e int instruction to interrupt the kernel and call some interrupt service routine. We’ll also […]


Protected Mode and the IDT


The MSDOS system uses IVT (Interrupt Vector Table) to hold the interrupt vectors that are called whenever some action occurs: like an interrupt is generated. But modern execution environments, […]


Windows Architecture and User/Kernel Mode


Each process started on x86 version of Windows uses a flat memory model that ranges from 0×00000000 – 0xFFFFFFFF. The lower half of the memory, 0×00000000 – 0x7FFFFFFF, is […]


Handling Memory in Protected Mode


In the past, systems such as MSDOS used the real mode, and it had no protections against accessing any memory address. Programs then were able to access even the […]


Translating Virtual to Physical Address on Windows: Physical Addresses

Getting the Physical Address Manually

So far we’ve figured that the virtual address is the same as linear address, so in the next part of the article we can use […]